Prehistoric migrations from Africa to Eurasia have generally been equated with Event unique. However, the results of a recent study, carried out by Dr Alon Barash, Dr Omry Barzilai, Professor Ella Been and Professor Miriam Belmaker, argue against this assumption. These researchers demonstrated that the dispersal out of Africa for Eurasia, or “Out of Africa”, was made in two waves.
The first migration, evidence of which was found in Dmanissi, is 1.8 million years old. The second would have taken place about 1.5 million years ago, has been attested by artifacts fromUbeidiya. Each of these two archaeological sites brings together various evidence of the passage of different types of hominids at distant periods.
The results showed the diversity human species having migrated from Africa to Eurasia. To this are added the different reasons who pushed the first of the kind Homo to leave the African continent.
Several human species at the origin of the Eurasian population?
Archaeological research shows a difference in the tools found at both sites. From landscaped pebbles of the’Oldowan were found in Dmanissi, while handaxes ofUbeidiya come from theAcheulean. Migrants from the Jordan Valley would thus be later than those from the Caucasus.
In 1966, a human lumbar vertebra was discovered at the Ubeidiya site. It is different in size and shape from those found at Dmanisi. If we refer to the type of industry they practiced, the hominids of the two sites would date from lower paleolithic. However, those who migrated to Georgia would predate those from Israel.
Indeed, the arranged pebbles would testify to the passage of theHomo habilis and of theHomo rudolfensiswhile theHomo erectus and theHomo ergaster would respectively be the inventors of the simple biface and the symmetrical biface.
Climate change driving migration
Every 20,000 years, theearth oscillation cause climate change related to glacial cycles and interglacial. These changes would be the cause of variations in the temperature and the type of vegetations in different African and Eurasian regions.
For to survivegroups of hominids would thus have been forced to move from Africa to Eurasia to to run away bad conditions.
In prehistory, the food and resources were cyclically rare. This was particularly the case during periods of great droughts in Africa and extreme cold in Eurasia.
“Hunting prey across the green savannah of northeast Africa, the Sinai, the eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula, early Homo sapiens would not even have recognized the difference between Africa and Europe. Eurasia. These migration corridors work in both directions. »
Axel Timmermann, climatologist